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Students those who are studying JNTUK R19 ECE Branch, Can Download Unit wise R19 2-1 Signals and Systems Material PDFs below.

Course Objectives: This course is designed to:

• To study about signals andsystems.
• To analyze the spectral characteristics of signal using Fourier series and Fouriertransforms.
• To understand the characteristics of systems.
• To introduce the concept of sampling process
• To know various transform techniques to analyze the signals and systems.

UNIT-1

INTRODUCTION: Definition of Signals and Systems, Classification of Signals, Classification of Systems, Operations on signals: time-shifting, time-scaling, amplitudeshifting, amplitude-scaling. Problems on classification and characteristics of Signals and Systems. Complex exponential and sinusoidal signals, Singularity functions and related functions: impulse function, step function signum function and ramp function. Analogy between vectors and signals, orthogonal signal space, Signal approximation using orthogonal functions, Mean square error, closed or complete set of orthogonal functions, Orthogonality in complex functions. Related Problems.

UNIT-2

FOURIER SERIES AND FOURIER TRANSFORM: Fourier series representation of continuous time periodic signals, properties of Fourier series, Dirichlet’s conditions, Trigonometric Fourier series and Exponential Fourier series, Relation between Trigonometric and Exponential Fourier series, Complex Fourier spectrum. Deriving Fourier transform from Fourier series, Fourier transform of arbitrary signal, Fourier transform of standard signals, Fourier transform of periodic signals, properties of Fourier transforms, Fourier transforms involving impulse function and Signum function. Introduction to Hilbert Transform.RelatedProblems.

UNIT-3

ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS: Introduction, Linear system, impulse response, Response of a linear system, Linear time invariant (LTI) system, Linear time variant (LTV) system, Concept of convolution in time domain and frequency domain, Graphical representation of convolution, Transfer function of a LTI system, Related problems. Filter characteristics of linear systems. Distortion less transmission through a system, Signal bandwidth, system bandwidth, Ideal LPF, HPF and BPF characteristics, Causality and Poly-Wiener criterion for physical realization, relationship between bandwidth and rise time.

UNIT-4

CORRELATION: Auto-correlation and cross-correlation of functions, properties of correlation function, Energy density spectrum, Parseval’s theorem, Power density spectrum, Relation between Convolution and correlation, Detection of periodic signals in the presence of noise by correlation, Extraction of signal from noise by filtering.

SAMPLING THEOREM : Graphical and analytical proof for Band Limited Signals, impulse sampling, Natural and Flat top Sampling, Reconstruction of signal from its samples, effect of under sampling – Aliasing, Introduction to Band Pass sampling, Related problems.

UNIT-5

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS: Introduction, Concept of region of convergence (ROC) for Laplace transforms, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Properties of L.T’s, Inverse Laplace transform, Relation between L.T’s, and F.T. of a signal. Laplace transform of certain signals using waveformsynthesis.

Z–TRANSFORMS: Concept of Z- Transform of a discrete sequence. Region of convergence in Z-Transform, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Inverse Ztransform, properties of Z-transforms. Distinction between Laplace, Fourier and Z transforms.

Text Books:

1. Signals, Systems & Communications – B.P. Lathi, BS Publications, 2003.

2. Signals and Systems – A.V. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and S.H. Nawab, PHI, 2nd Edn, 1997

3. Signals & Systems – Simon Haykin and Van Veen, Wiley, 2ndEdition, 2007

Reference Books:

1. Principles of Linear Systems and Signals – BP Lathi, Oxford University Press, 2015

2. Signals and Systems – T K Rawat , Oxford University press, 2011

Course Outcomes:

• Differentiate the various classifications of signals andsystems
• Analyze the frequency domain representation of signals using Fourierconcepts
• Classify the systems based on their properties and determine the response ofLTI Systems.
• Know the sampling process and various types of samplingtechniques.
• Apply Laplace and z-transforms to analyze signals and Systems (continuous &discrete).

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