# JNTUK R20 2-1 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Material PDF Download

1

Students those who are studying JNTUK R20 Mechanical Branch, Can Download Unit wise R20 2-1 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines (FM&HM) Material/Notes PDFs below.

### JNTUK R20 2-1 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines Material PDF Download

OBJECTIVES:

• The students completing this course are expected to understand the properties of fluids, its kinematic and dynamic behavior through various laws of fluids like continuity, Euler’s, Bernoulli’s equations, energy and momentum equations. Further, the student shall be able to understand the theory of boundary layer, working and performance characteristics of various hydraulic machines like pumps and turbines.

UNIT-1

Objective: After studying this unit student will know the concept of fluid and its properties, manometry, hydrostatic forces acting on different surfaces and also problem solving techniques.

Fluid statics: Dimensions and units: physical properties of fluids – specific gravity, viscosity and its significance, surface tension, capillarity, vapor pressure. Atmospheric, gauge and vacuum pressure, Measurement of pressure – Manometers – Piezometer, U-tube, inverted and differential manometers. Pascal’s & hydrostatic laws.

Buoyancy and floatation: Meta center, stability of floating body. Submerged bodies. Calculation of metacenter height. Stability analysis and applications.

UNIT-2

Objective: In this unit student will be exposed to the basic laws of fluids, flow patterns, viscous flow through ducts and their corresponding problems.

Fluid kinematics: Introduction, flow types. Equation of continuity for one dimensional flow, circulation and vorticity, Stream line, path line and streak lines and stream tube. Stream function and velocity potential function, differences and relation between them. Condition for irrotational flow, flow net, source and sink, doublet and vortex flow.

Fluid dynamics: surface and body forces –Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations for flow along a stream line, momentum equation and its applications, force on pipe bend.

Closed conduit flow: Reynold’s experiment- Darcy Weisbach equation- Minor losses in pipes- pipes in series and pipes in parallel- total energy line-hydraulic gradient line.

UNIT-3

Objective: At the end of this unit student will be aware of the concepts related to boundary layer theory, flow separation, basic concepts of velocity profiles, dimensionless numbers and dimensional analysis.

Boundary Layer Theory: Introduction, momentum integral equation, displacement, momentum and energy thickness, separation of boundary layer, control of flow separation, Stream lined body, Bluff body and its applications, basic concepts of velocity profiles.

Dimensional Analysis: Dimensions and Units, Dimensional Homogeneity, Non dimensionalization of equations, Method of repeating variables and Buckingham Pi Theorem.

UNIT-4

Objective: In this unit student will know the hydrodynamic forces acting on vanes and performance evaluation of hydraulic turbines.

Basics of turbo machinery: hydrodynamic force of jets on stationary and moving flat, inclined, and curved vanes, jet striking centrally and at tip, velocity diagrams, work done and efficiency, flow over radial vanes.

Hydraulic Turbines: classification of turbines, impulse and reaction turbines, Pelton wheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine-working proportions, work done, efficiencies, hydraulic design – draft tube- theory- functions and efficiency.

UNIT-5

Objective: After studying this unit student will be in a position to understand the characteristic curves of hydraulic turbines and also evaluate the performance characteristics of hydraulic pumps.

Performance of hydraulic turbines: Geometric similarity, Unit and specific quantities, characteristic curves, governing of turbines, selection of type of turbine, cavitation, surge tank, water hammer. Hydraulic systems- hydraulic ram, hydraulic lift, hydraulic coupling. Fluidics – amplifiers, sensors and oscillators. Advantages, limitations and applications.

Centrifugal pumps: classification, working, work done – manometric head- losses and efficienciesspecific speed- pumps in series and parallel-performance characteristic curves, cavitation & NPSH.

Reciprocating pumps: Working, Discharge, slip, indicator diagrams.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Fluid Mechanics- Fundementals and Applications by Y.A. Cengel, J.M.Cimbala, 6th Edn, McGrawHill
2. Fluid Mechanics – Dixon, 7th Edn, Elesvier

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Hydraulics, fluid mechanics and Hydraulic machinery- Modi and Seth
2. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines – RK Bansal- Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
3. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines – Rajput
4. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering – D.S. Kumar, Kotaria & Sons.
5. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery – D. Rama Durgaiah, New Age International.

OUTCOMES:

• CO1: The basic concepts of fluid properties.
• CO2: The mechanics of fluids in static and dynamic conditions.
• CO3: Boundary layer theory, flow separation and dimensional analysis.
• CO4: Hydrodynamic forces of jet on vanes in different positions.
• CO5: Working Principles and performance evaluation of hydraulic pump and turbines.